The Efficacy of Auditory, Visual, and Tactile Feedback in Improving Speech and Intelligibility Skills of People with Severe to Profound Hearing Loss Across Varying Age Levels
Enhanced auditory, tactile, and visual feedback systems have been researched as alternative means of sensory feedback for people with severe to profound hearing loss to improve articulation and intelligibility of speech. The general consensus is that children with hearing loss are on average 20% intelligible, which translates to one word out of every five is understood by the listener. As children enter school, their speech intelligibility is often considered an indication of their abilities, meaning that low intelligibility could result in underestimation of potential. For adults who experience hearing loss, articulation has been shown to dramatically decrease over time, resulting in lowered intelligibility.
The purpose of this research is to compare each form of feedback to determine which form of sensory feedback provides the highest levels of efficacy for preschool aged children (3 to 5 years), school aged children (6 to 17 years), and adults (18+ years).
ConclusionA combination of biofeedback types is suggested for school aged children and adults, as each form demonstrated improvement for differing areas of speech. Visual and tactile are not recommended for the preschool children, as it is assumed these forms of feedback are too complex to be translated at this age. Tactile is not recommended for school aged children as there were inconclusive findings. For adults, each of the feedback systems demonstrated positive effects, indicating the three systems should be paired for optimal and most efficient results.
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